One of the world’s hottest peppers offers insights into headaches

In some people, brain arteries may narrow after eating spicy food.

A man rushed to the hospital with an excruciating headache after participating in a chili-pepper-eating contest may have triggered a hot medical discovery.

Doctors who assessed him wondered what could have caused the massive pain in his head. After excluding a life-threatening bleed and a tear of the arteries in his neck, they were left with a more bizarre explanation: the chili peppers.

The man had taken part the pepper-eating contest earlier in the day, during which he had eaten a "Carolina Reaper," one of the hottest varieties of peppers on Earth.

After scanning his head, doctors found that several of his brain’s arteries had narrowed. They diagnosed him with "reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome," a rare side effect associated with some medications.

Fortunately, the patient improved. A second scan five weeks after showed his brain's arteries had returned to normal.

However the condition isn’t always harmless, it has previously been linked to stroke. The man's symptoms included a severe "thunderclap headache," dry heaves and neck pain, but a thunderclap headache can also occur by itself.

So should people avoid spicy foods?

Since cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome has previously occurred without an identifiable cause, doctors can’t be sure eating peppers was to blame. But they do think it's plausible that it caused the man's symptoms in this case.

Though it may have spiced up the doctors' day, it's something they're unlikely to see again. The report, published in BMJ Case Reports, is the first that links hot peppers to reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome.

Gunasekaran was unable to comment on exactly how common this effect might be.

"Unfortunately we don’t have any data as there is no randomized control trial in this field," he said.

These findings led doctors to suggest that capsaicin might be "vasoactive," meaning it affects how blood vessels function. That could be how the pepper may have caused this man's headache, by constricting the vessels in his head.

A study published in the Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics even found that it was effective in treating headaches -- although that might not work for the man at the pepper-eating contest.

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