Sixty-one senators voted in favor of permanently removing her from office; 20 voted against her impeachment.
She had been suspended from office since May.
Once praised for setting a global standard for fighting corruption, Rousseff, 68, has faced an uphill battle to maintain her position after she was accused of violating fiscal laws by using loans from public banks to cover budget shortfalls, allegedly to enhance the government’s performance to help her win re-election to a second term in 2014.
She has denied breaking any laws.
With more than two-thirds of the 81 senators backing her removal, interim President Michael Temer will now be the country’s leader.
Rousseff took the stand Monday in a last-ditch effort to save her presidency, reportedly telling her former colleagues in the Senate, “Don’t expect from me the obliging silence of cowards.”
She was peppered with questions from legislators in a 14 hour session on Monday during her impeachment trial.
Police fired tear gas to disperse people demonstrating in support of Rousseff in Sao Paolo, The Associated Press reported.