The treadmill accident happened at the hotel's gym, where Goldberg injured his head on the right side and suffered a 3-centimeter wound, officials said.
The Silicon Valley executive was found by his brother, who alerted emergency services, officials added.
Goldberg died in the hospital after suffering severe head trauma and hypovolemic shock, authorities said.
Hypovolemic shock is a condition that occurs when someone experiences severe blood loss, causing the heart to be unable to pump blood. It can be caused by internal or external bleeding, burns, excessive perspiration, diarrhea or vomiting, according to the NIH.
The attorney general's office also said it had "exhausted all lines of inquiry in relation to this case."
President Obama remembered Goldberg, saying in part, "We're heartbroken by him leaving us far too soon - but we celebrate a remarkable legacy."