The Senate Judiciary Committee voted unanimously to recommend Wray's confirmation earlier this month.
During his testimony before the committee, Wray pledged that under his direction the agency would strive to maintain its independence — a key statement for Democrats, who noted Comey's claim that Trump asked for his loyalty. Trump denied that he made such a request.
"If I am given the honor of leading this agency, I will never allow the FBI's work to be driven by anything other than the facts, the law and the impartial pursuit of justice," Wray said.
Senate Judiciary Committee Chairman Chuck Grassley, R-Iowa, congratulated Wray in a statement released after the vote Tuesday and emphasized Wray's previous comments on impartiality and commitment to cooperate with Congress.
"The good work of the FBI has been overshadowed recently by controversies, but I hope this confirmation turns the page and begins a new, shining chapter for our nation's leading law enforcement agency," Grassley said in the statement.
Wyden, one of the dissenting senators, explained his position in a separate statement, indicating that his vote was motivated by the issue of privacy.
"In his public and private statements, Chris Wray failed to oppose government back doors into Americans' personal devices or to acknowledge the facts about encryption — that it isn't about liberty versus security, it's about more security versus less security," said Wyden in his statement. "While I appreciate his willingness to continue studying the issue, other officials who have talked about finding common ground have turned around and sought to fatally undermine the cornerstone of Americans' cybersecurity. "
Trump announced Wray as his choice to take over as FBI director in a tweet in June, calling him "a man of impeccable credentials."
Wray served as the assistant attorney general from 2003 to 2005, during George W. Bush's administration, working under Comey, then the deputy attorney general.
ABC News' Adam Kelsey contributed to this report.