The study does not address the long-standing debate among psychologists over whether IQ can be raised, although there is substantial evidence that under some circumstances it can. Psychologists have found, for example, that some adopted children have IQs that are 20 percent higher than those of their biological siblings. Other studies have indicated that nutrition at an early age can affect intelligence.
But no one, other than pill pushers, thinks it's easy to raise intelligence. Maybe over the long haul it does change, for better or for worse, but Moser thinks it is probably very difficult to achieve, and at least as far as his study is concerned, possibly irrelevant.
There is more at work than simply intelligence, he said. Motivation and effort "are huge," he added, and they are not just dependent on intelligence.
They also, according to this research, need the right "mind set."
Moser's study opens with this quote from Henry Ford:
"Whether you think you can or think you can't, you are right."