It'll be Colbert's first time hosting the telecast, which will air live from Los Angeles on Sunday, Sept. 17, on CBS.
Colbert noted -- in a nod to White House Press Secretary Sean Spicer's comments about how many people watched the inauguration -- that "this will be the largest audience to witness an Emmys, period, both in person and around the globe.”
"He's a formidable showman and we are delighted to begin working with him and the entire CBS team," added the chairman and CEO of the Television Academy, which hands out the Emmys.
Colbert is now the host of CBS' "Late Show With Stephen Colbert." His previous show, Comedy Central's "The Colbert Report," won multiple Emmys.
Jimmy Kimmel last hosted the awards show in 2016, when it aired on ABC.