According to a White House readout of the conversation, the two spoke about efforts to end terrorism in the Middle East, attempts to de-escalate tensions with North Korea and the ongoing civil war in Syria.
"President Trump and President Putin agreed that the suffering in Syria has gone on for far too long and that all parties must do all they can to end the violence," read the White House release.
Trump has not spoken with Putin since he authorized an airstrike against a Syrian airbase in retaliation for the deadly chemical attack in April. In an April 12 press conference alongside NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg, Trump said the U.S.-Russia relationship was at an "all-time low."
In a previous call on April 3, Trump called Putin to send condolences and condemn the attack in St. Petersburg, in which a bomb exploded on a subway train, killing 11 people.
Trump's first phone call as president with his Russian counterpart was Jan. 28. Putin and Trump discussed several issues, including the threat of ISIS in Syria and the Ukraine crisis.
There are still ongoing investigations into Russia's tampering in the 2016 election and possible communication between Trump campaign officials and the Kremlin.
The Democratic National Committee seized on the call to criticize Trump's outlook on Russia, releasing a statement in which they called the administration's strategy one of "appeasement."
"With no apparent talk of Russia’s abysmal record on human rights, no clear message on Assad’s future in Syria, and no condemnation of Russia’s continued aggression in Ukraine, it’s clear that ultimately, Putin is getting what he wants from Trump," read the DNC's statement.
ABC News' Katherine Faulders and John Parkinson contributed to this report.