"We appreciate the hard work of many people over the past 11 days, but we feel that it is best to move in a different direction at this time," the team said in the statement.
Brown seemed to confirm his release in a tweet, writing, "Thank you for the opportunity."
He later tweeted, "The marathon continues."
Brown caught four passes for 56 yards and a score in a 43-0 blowout win over Miami on Sunday, his only game with the team.
Drew Rosenhause, Brown's agent, said on Twitter it was "unfortunate things didn't work out with the Patriots. But Antonio is healthy and is looking forward to his next opportunity in the NFL. He wants to play the game he loves and he hopes to play for another team soon."
Just two days after the Patriots announced they'd signed Brown, the seven-time Pro Bowl receiver was accused of sexual assault and rape by his former trainer.
Britney Taylor, who accused Brown of sexual assault on multiple occasions, had planned to meet with the NFL last week, sources told ABC News.
ABC News does not usually name alleged victims of sexual assault, but Taylor's lawyer gave permission and reiterated the lawsuit was not filed anonymously.
Brown, through his attorney, denied all allegations and suggested his accuser was just trying to extort him. He said the relationship was consensual.
"Mr. Brown denies each and every allegation in the lawsuit," Brown's lawyer, Darren Heitner, said in a statement after the suit was filed. "He will pursue all legal remedies to not only clear his name, but to also protect other professional athletes against false accusations."
Brown was traded to Oakland from Pittsburgh in March and signed a three-year, $50 million extension, but after feuding with the NFL over his helmet type and with Raiders management, his contract was voided and he went on to sign with the Patriots.
He unsuccessfully filed multiple grievances with the NFL, who outlawed his type of helmet due to updates safety regulations.
Brown's time in Oakland only grew more controversial after he secretly recorded and released a conversation with Raiders head coach Jon Gruden. Following a reported practice field spat with Oakland General Manager Mike Mayock, Brown asked the Raiders to release him.